Ioan Cuza University of Iai Cistelecan, Assist. Xenopol History Institute Discourse carries ideologies which establish, maintain and adjust social relations of power, domination and exploitation.
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Public discourse has a purpose as well as unintended consequences. US rhetoric is often a tool by which international leaders, governments and organizations assess the US and its intentions.
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Whether US officials mean what they say or not, US public discourse has a performative function ; it can create international stability or destabilize. That is why a subtle and sensitive analysis of US rhetoric leads to a better understanding of the US foreign policy and of international geopolitics. The power of the American public discourse in the 21st century is this ability to influence through a discourse that is simple in terms of vocabulary and grammar but intricate in terms of meaning and purpose; it is easy to understand, it includes key words that reflect the will of the leaders to preserve America as the greatest nation in the world, to create false humiliation impression, to stir emotions and empathy, sympathy and solidarity feelings, with the purpose to cause behaviours and to acquire consent.
The act of interpreting assertions does not mean simply decoding words from the linguistic perspective. It implies matching the features of the utterance with recognizable interpretations and common sense assumptions which are ideologically shaped by relations of power which proves that language is a means to dominate people. Discourse means exercising power through communication.
Discourse is part of the unconscious and conscious mind and emotional life of the subjects they seek to govern. People live unconsciously in realities made up of discursive elements that become recognizable when produced. Key words: Communication, discourse, geopolitics, hegemony, US foreign policy.
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Language in discourse has social, political, cognitive, moral and material consequences and effects, as Norman Fairclough explains in his Critical Discourse Analysis and the Critical Language Study1 method which appears to be one of the most appropriate tool to analyze and understand discourse in todays world. Discourse carries ideologies are representations of aspects of the world which can be shown to contribute to establishing, maintaining and changing social relations of power, domination and exploitation2.
Siobhan McEnvoy Levy is another author who sees discourse as a major tool in understading action.
She dedicates her entire book, American Exceptionalism and US Foreign Policy Public Diplomacy at the End of Cold War, to the study of the rhetoric of American public speeches, or public diplomacy, as she calls it, because: a rhetoric is an analytical priority, a key tool in understanding endeavours such as: US foreign policy, the survival and effectiveness of US Administrations, b rhetoric is a tool in shaping opinions, 1 Norman Fairclough, Analysis Discourse : Textual Analysis for Social Research,p.
The importance of public discourse and especially of the Exceptionalist discourse appears as major in Siobhan McEnvoy Levys book as she identifies discourse public diplomacy so powerful that it can have unintended consequences and create or undermine international stability: Public diplomacy can have unintended consequences.
US rhetoric is often a primary means by which other international leaders, governments and organizations evaluate the US and its intentions.
It is not possible to dismiss such rhetoric as meaningless or lacking in consequences. Regardless of whether US officials mean what they say or not, US public diplomacy is instrumental either in creating international stability or in undermining it.
This alone legitimizes a careful and sensitive analysis of US foreign policy rhetoric4.
Discourse analysis provides valuable information about how America sees itself and what are the values it wants to reflect and to promote across the world: An examination of speeches and statements can provide information about what a given Administration identifies as the source and strength of its power and how it perceives the US place in the world.
On the one hand, in order to identify meaningful elements. She therefore stresses that techniques from the study of linguistics semantics, pragmatics and discourse analysis allows us to chart scădere în greutate maccala mclaren and contests between political actors states, international institutions, publics 6.
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On the other hand, to correlate these meaningful elements with the context because in many cases, the same Exceptionalist elements may be used for different purposes: The adaptive use of American Exceptionalism is meaningful beyond a purely strategic function.
Two administrations may differ but the maintenance and recasting of the Exceptionalism theme points to the existence of enduring principles 7 Siobhan McEnvoy Levy makes a subtle difference between intended and unintended consequences of a discourse. One pronounced, it determines reactions and actions of either consensus or rejection. The US governmental official makes efforts to construct and maintain shared beliefs about international affairs, establish interpretative control in the rhetorical political scădere în greutate maccala mclaren and build elite and public consensus through the use of persuasive oral communication 11 US political administrations are primarily reliant on their public diplomacy skills in two related ways.
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Cumulative routine rhetoric creates a climate of belief, a consensus on broad values, which supports and enables the contingent use of rhetoric for achieving specific foreign policy issue and international events p.
The act of interpreting the assertions does not mean simply decoding the words from the linguistic perspective. It implies, as Faiclough explains, matching features of the utterance at various levels of interpretations you have stored in your long term memory14p.
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Case studies: Two speeches have been chosen to study the power of language exercised through public discourse: arderea grasimilor este Senator Marco Rubios address to the Brookings Institution, in Washington DC, on 25 Apriland entitled is The American Order Sustainable and Necessary in the 21st century? He embodies the American Dream of fulfillment. He is the son of a Cuban working class immigrant who came to the US in the s and he launched his campaign for the US Senate in and won.
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His entire rhetoric reflects American beliefs in the unique place that America deserves in the world. Americas position as the global leader in the 21st century and its exceptional qualities unparalleled by other countries are reflected in an exceptionalist discourse by Senator Marco Rubio, in his address to the Brookings Institution, in Washington DC, on 25 Apriland entitled is The American Order Sustainable and Necessary in the 21st century?.
In a persuasive style, Senator Marco Rubio positions America as the leader in the 20th century, based on its messianic role successfully accomplished in the world after WW II, and therefore entitled to preserve this position unchallenged in the 21st century.
Moreover, Senator Marco Rubio suggests that it is not America that wants to impose its rules but the world requests American values because they are the best to ensure progress.
Key words that are usually associated with Americas exceptional image are repeated several times in his speech: leadership, democracy, free market, and prosperity: What world order might have existed from the end of World War II until the present if America -- absent American leadership.
Could we say for certain that it would look anything like Americas vision of an increasingly freer and more open international system where catastrophic conflicts between great powers were avoided? Democracy and free market capitalism flourished? Where prosperity spread wider and wider, and billions of people emerged from poverty? Would it have occurred, if after the war, America scădere în greutate maccala mclaren minded its own business and left the world to sort out its affairs without our leadership?
Almost surely not. The purpose of the institutions we established, from the United Nations to the World Bank and the IMF, was to spread peace and prosperity, not to certain narrow American interests. Other nations consented to our leadership because they saw what the economic and political values of the American worldview had achieved for us and they wanted the same for themselves.
Senator Rubio also includes a reference to religion to give his discourse an unquestionable dimension: America has ushered in the Biblical promise of a new Heaven and a new Earth, lets stop and remember that the world America made is better, but it is not perfect.
Anchilostomiaza Este o infectie provocata de viermii carlig, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, care infecteaza aproximativ 1.
But it is vastly more peaceful and prosperous than any other age in recorded history. So, this is the world America made. Americas destiny is presented as ineluctably and closely interconnected with the world but from the position of the leader that does not allow others to lead and does not accept the position of equal partner.
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One reference is made to China, felt as a rising power and comparable to America but considered not as benignly disposed to the political and economic aspirations of other nations as we are. Senator Marco Rubio creates a negative image for China. He makes an antithetical comparison between America and China from a superior position, placing China lower by describing it in negative terms and associating it with rogue states which annuls all chances to be taken into account as a worlds leader.
His linguistic technique is to describe by denying the opposite: China is not benignly disposed ; curtain of secrecy that veils the Chinese state ; we must deal with the China we know today, it would be foolish to be confident in the idea that China can be counted on. However, Senator Rubio accepts that China is a leading power in todays world but he totally rejects the idea that China, or any other power described as world order, may become a leader in the foreseeable future because of the lack of values that the world needs and can only be found in America: would scădere în greutate maccala mclaren world order -- or China, at least as we know China right now, as the leading power, be as benignly disposed to the political and economic aspirations of other nations as we are?
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I still have hope that behind the curtain of secrecy that veils the Chinese state that there are voices that advocate for the peaceful and responsible rise of that nation, voices that reject the idea of a global power as a zero-sum game.
We hold out hope for a new China of tomorrow, but for now we must deal with the China we know today, a China which enjoys its closest relationships with countries like North Korea and Iran. So at least for now, it would be foolish to be confident in the idea that China can be counted on to defend and support global, economic, and political freedom or to take up the cause of human rights China is definitely seen as a potential competitor.
Senator Rubio mentions several times China in his speech, each time with a negative image. For instance, criticism to Chinas human rights, trade practices and interference of the state in business: The United States, Europe and East Asia represent 71 percent of the worlds economy.
Thats a lot of leverage and we should use it to address problems, such as Chinas disregard for intellectual property rights, gross human rights violations, its